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What Is an Index? – NerdWallet


Index: Definition

In general, an index is an indicator or measurement of something. When investing, the index tracks the performance of a group of assets or a basket of securities, such as a list of publicly traded stocks and their stock prices. Investors use indices as a benchmark to measure the performance of individual stocks, bonds or mutual funds against overall market performance.

The S&P 500 and the Dow Jones Industrial Average are the two best-known stock market indices. Although these indices track a broad market and large company stock movements, other indices can only track a specific industry or market sector.

In a publishing house, an index is an alphabetical list of names and topics that are often found in non-journalistic books. In science and economics, an index is a statistical number used to measure changes over time (think: UV index, air quality index, or consumer price index). Various interest rates on certain financial products, such as adjustable-rate mortgages, often increase or fall on the basis of a certain indexed rate.

Investment indexation: index funds and ETFs

Individual stocks and actively managed mutual funds are trying to “beat” the market – that is, better than their baseline figures. But these attempts often fail, and more and more investors are using passive investment strategies: index funds or stock funds that seek to reflect the results of a broad market or sector rather than defeat it.

Index funds and ETFs are funds that hold stocks that represent an entire index, such as the S&P 500, so that performance increases and falls along with that index. As index values ​​increase over time, index funds and ETFs have become an important way for investors to create long-term wealth.

Examples of the stock index

Here are some common indexes that follow investors – as well as a number of index funds and ETFs:

S&P 500 Index: The S&P 500 tracks the market performance of about 500 of the largest public stocks in the United States. The index represents the leading companies in the leading industries and has a capitalization, which means that each share is weighed in proportion to the dominant market capitalization. For example, a company with a total share valued at $ 100 billion weighs more than $ 10 billion.

Dow Jones Industrial Average: The DJIA is monitoring the performance of the 30 largest US. companies also known as “blue chip” stocks. Market capitalization is not taken into account in this indicator.

Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate bond index: Also known as Agg, it is a broad index that tracks the US. Bond Market Index measures the investment grade, US The taxable bond market.

Nasdaq Composite Index: Nasdaq tracks the work of more than 3,000 technology-related companies.

Russell Index 2000: This index tracks 2,000 small – also known as small – companies with a market capitalization of $ 300 to $ 2 billion.




What Is a Manufactured Home? A Buying Guide


Formerly known as mobile homes, manufactured homes are sold primarily through retailers and can be customized to suit your needs and budget.

Manufactured homes are an affordable alternative for home buyers, and some of today’s options have amenities that may surprise you, such as sliding door wardrobes, fireplaces, stainless steel appliances – even vaulted ceilings.

Here’s what to consider when thinking about buying a manufactured home.

What is home making?

The houses that are manufactured are built in factories in accordance with construction and safety standards set by the United States. Department of Housing and Urban Development, or HUD. Houses are built on permanent chassis – base frames with wheels – and then professionally transported in one or more sections and installed on site. Wheels and axles are removed, and houses are fixed in place. They can be installed on permanent or permanent foundations.

Recently, a new class of manufactured houses appeared, which received the trade group “CrossMod”, represented by the Institute of Industrial Housing. These houses are built in a factory to HUD standards and then delivered on permanent foundations. These may include features such as drywall interiors, garages and covered porches that make them virtually indistinguishable from homes built on site.

Modular houses are cousins ​​for industrial houses. They are also built at the factory, but modular homes are built according to local and state building codes, both on sites houses for the family. Partitions of houses or modules are transported to home plots, then assembled by local contractors and installed on permanent foundations.

Tiny houses“are not considered manufactured houses, which must be at least 320 square feet in accordance with HUD standards.

What is a mobile home?

The terms “home house” and “manufactured house” are sometimes used interchangeably, but there is a big difference. Mobile homes are factory homes that were built before June 15, 1976, when federal HUD standards came into force. Manufacturers are houses built after this date.

Over the 40s, home production has come a long way, so new models are far from the stereotype of a mobile home.

Buying a manufactured house

Most manufactured homes are sold through retailers that offer new and previous options. You can also find existing manufactured homes through real estate agents, on some common real estate listing sites, and on online sites made online. And in some states you can buy from the owner of a manufactured apartment building.

Buying a manufactured house from a seller is reminiscent of buying a car, but without a trade. You can look at model houses in the sales market, choose the right features and apply for financing a manufactured house all on the same day. Floor plans for one-, two-, and three-story sections range from one-bedroom homes with a single bathroom area of ​​less than 500 square feet to four-bedroom, three-story homes larger than 2,500 square feet. The retailer usually coordinates transportation and installation.

Most manufacturers provide warranties for building coverage, as well as plumbing, heating and electrical systems for a period of time, typically one to five years, according to the Industrial Housing Institute. Some appliances may also be covered by warranties. Ask the seller.

Choosing a home made home

In addition to choosing a home, you will need to find a place to place it. This can be on a rented plot in a manufactured home or on land that you rent or buy.

Homes that are made at home are very different. Some communities are restricted to residents over the age of 55, while others are open to all ages. Amenities in the new settlements work with scales and may include features such as spacious lawns and gardens, club houses, golf courses, swimming pools and a promenade.

If you want to buy land, first consult with your local government about zoning restrictions for industrial homes. Other things to consider include requirements for septic tanks, electricity and building permits, site preparation, access to property, quality and soil stability.

The cost of the manufactured house

The average selling price of a manufactured house in November 2019 was $ 81,600, according to the latest US data. Census Bureau.

But the basic price of a house is not the only price to consider. Also you buy extra land costs when you buy a lot, and for the addition of any features such as steps or patios, or a constantly sized house. Sometimes the cost of transportation and arrangement of the house is included in the price. Make sure you understand everything you need and include these costs in your budget.

Residents of homeowners usually pay rent for the land, as well as fees for common amenities, services and utilities. The factor of these costs when you think about life in society.

It is often thought that industrial homes do not increase in price as much as do homes built on the site. But some homes that are manufactured, along with the land on which they are permanently installed, can appreciate at similar levels, according to an analysis by the city’s Federal Housing Finance Agency for 2018. However, the cost of a home made on their own may increase not so much as built on the site, because in general the structures do not evaluate as much as the land under them.

Made home loans

You can find a lender through a manufactured home seller, similar to how you apply for financing through a car dealer. The resulting home lenders and sellers have agreements to work with each other. Or you can find a lender yourself who is willing to finance the purchase from that seller.

Two main types of loans are used to finance a manufactured home: mortgage and loans. Typically, manufactured homes must be permanently anchored to the foundation and titled as real estate with land to qualify for a mortgage loan. Other homes that are manufactured are called personal property and are eligible for loans.


According to the Bureau of Financial Protection of Consumer Rights, most industrial houses are financed by loans. Loans on the Shuttle typically have higher interest rates than mortgages, but lower upfront costs and closing times. The terms of the loan are usually 10, 15 or 20 years versus the usual 30-year term of a regular mortgage.

Made a home mortgage

State-subordinated mortgages, including from the Federal Housing Administration and the United States. Departments of Agriculture and Veterans Affairs are available for new homes that are being produced. These home loans have low payment requirements and are issued by private lenders. Name FHA Loans are unique because they can be used to purchase or refinance a manufactured home or batch or both. The borrower does not need to own the land.

You may also be eligible ordinary mortgage, one that is not supported by the government. Two conventional mortgages are designed specifically for manufactured homes that have the distinctive features of homes built on the site – Fannie Mae MH Advantage and Freddie Mac ChoiceHome mortgage. Both down payment requirements range from 3%.

Industrial houses: pros and cons

No type of home is suitable for every buyer. Here are some things to keep in mind when thinking about whether to buy a manufactured home.

Manufacturers for the home

  • Availability: Manufacturers are cheaper than other homes. With the exception of land, the cost of a newly built house rose 47% less per square foot than for a similar house built on the site, according to the Urban Institute.

  • Choice: You can choose from a variety of amenities and upgrades that allow you to customize your home.

  • Energy efficient and safe: Manufacturing homes must meet HUD standards for energy efficiency and safety.

Manufactured ladies cons

  • Funding: Presented houses, which are not fixed to permanent foundations and listed as real estate, are not eligible for most traditional mortgages. Loans that can be used to finance homes listed as personal property have higher interest rates than traditional mortgages.

  • Location restriction: Some cities do not allow the production of residential houses and do not require larger plots than the houses built on the site, according to the Urban Institute. These zoning restrictions limit the choice of your location, and therefore a disproportionate number of manufactured homes are located in rural areas or in uninformed areas.




5 Hilton Hotels for Road Trips in the Western U.S.


note: NerdWallet severely hinders travel soon as long as the coronavirus continues to spread. Check Disease Control Center and State Department sites for current travel recommendations and restrictions. Please use the contents of this article only to inform about future travel plans.

Many Americans are experiencing air travel this summer: 50% who booked by the end of October have perfectly canceled their plans, according to a recent travel sentiment study by Longwoods, a market research company. Also 22% changed the trip in a convenient direction instead of flying.

It is clear that many families are rethinking their plans and making adjustments to ensure a safe family vacation.

Federal authorities advise avoiding unnecessary travel, noting that the best way to protect your family and others from disease is to stay home. Many states were rebuilt or soon reopened, many in the Western United States. Family spaces may be available throughout the region, such as some state parks and museums when restrictions are lifted.

If your family feels ready for a road trip and has plenty of Hilton Honors points to redeem, here are some Hilton family properties to check out.

5 hotels to book with Hilton points in the Western USA.

1. Housewood Suites by Hilton, Boise, Idaho

This hotel offers spacious rooms for the comfortable accommodation of your family. Please also pet and provides free parking for guests. Located in the city of Boise, Homewood Suites it’s a few hours drive from the scenic Hell Canyon Road, where the family can catch a view of the Snake River and local wildlife such as sheep and bald eagles along the coast along the cobbled road.

2. Hampton Inn Jackson Hole, Jackson, Wyoming

If you’re looking for a vacation spot with lots of traditional family summer activities, think about it Hampton Inn Jackson Hole. It offers a free breakfast, coin laundry and other amenities that make traveling with children easier. And just a 1/4 hour drive from the newly restored south entrance to Yellowstone National Park.

3. Hilton Garden Inn Seattle, Bellevue, Washington

Hilton Honors members who want to experience more modern rooms can come to check in Hilton Garden Inn, located in the center of Bellevue to enjoy its high decor. From the hotel a short drive to the iconic Pike Place Market; Currently, you can stroll through the open-air market, and some businesses are only open for curb selection. This hotel destination keeps you within driving distance of newly discovered beaches, including Scenic Beach.

4. Homewood Suites by Hilton, Bozeman, Montana

The Homewood Suites by Hilton in Bozeman serves as a convenient home base for traveling families, thanks to its spacious rooms and free breakfast. A family event to be expected is a visit to the nearby Rocky Mountains Museum, which features Yellowstone exhibits and dinosaur exhibits. It recently reopened to visitors Wednesday through Sunday. Admission is limited for safety and health reasons, so make an online booking.

5. Home2 Suites by Hilton, Idaho Falls, Idaho

With full kitchen amenities in each room and kitchen accessories lights for vodka that can be ordered Home2 Suites allows you to cook homemade food for your family or book an outing to enjoy in your apartment. The city of Idaho Falls has a Greenbelt loop that covers 5 miles of paved walkway on either side of the Snake River. If you have time, consider a day trip to the famous Shoshone Falls Park, which offers towering waterfalls and magnificent views.

Check hotel and government travel policies

No matter what property at Hilton you have chosen to redeem the items of honor, keep a close eye on changes to hotel policies and services due to travel laws enforced by the state. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are very helpful list of State Department of Health sites.

Contact the selected hotel before booking your stay to find out if there are any restrictions that will affect your plans, and then before arrival contact the reservation service to find out about any new rules that take effect from the time of booking.

CDC recommendations for safe travel

When going home in the summer, remember how to save the family. For those who choose to travel at this time, the CDC offers several tips, including:

  • Check again if your family is at high risk if he gets COVID-19. Traveling outside of your local community and being among other people increases your risk of infection.

  • Carefully choose activities that promote social distance so that your family is 6 feet away from others.

  • Wash your hands regularly for at least 20 seconds after contact with public surfaces and before eating, as well as after blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing. Bring plenty of hand sanitizers that contain at least 60% alcohol for road travel, in case soap and water are available.

  • On humans, always wear a cloth cover or mask to slow the spread of infectious drops.

  • Cover coughing and sneezing and avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth.

Photos provided by Hilton (© Hilton 2020).

How to maximize your rewards

You want to travel with a credit card that prioritizes the ones that matter most to you. Here are our choices for the best road credit cards of 2020, including the best for:




Get Your Finances Ready to Refi Student Loans


Student loan refinancing rates are close to record lows, but you can expect a drop.

It makes sense to follow the current benefit for student loans options that suspend federal student loan payments. It’s free money more or less and can help you get your finances in shape.

But when that benefit ends, as scheduled for September. 30 – or if you have higher rates of private student loans without relief programs – you may want to reconsider refinancing your student loan.

Refinancing rewards with great credit and healthy personal finances. Here’s how to make sure the best deal is waiting for you.

Improve credit

Refinancing lenders consider many factors to determine your interest rate. You may not be able to immediately transfer the needle to some of them, such as your earnings.

But you can improve others.

For example, a better loan price usually means a higher rate. Refinancing lenders may approve you with a FICO score above 650, but offers are likely to be best for scores in the mid-700s and above.

Look for opportunities to improve your credit score. One of the main factors in the effectiveness of FICO and VantageScore credit scores: the percentage of available credit that remains when used. If you use more than 30% of your credit either on one card or on all your current accounts, strategically paying off balances can help you.

You can also make payments in two weeks to keep your balance low, or ask for higher credit limits.

The history of timely payment of bills is the key to a high credit score, but the reduction in the use of loans is one of the levers available for quickly build credit.

Repay the debt

You may have extra money due to suspended student loan payments. If you don’t need it in an emergency fund, consider using that money to repay one or more debts.

When deciding on your offer, refinancing lenders usually consider yours debt and income ratioor DTI. DTIs are monthly financial liabilities divided by your monthly income.

For example, let’s say you earned $ 4,000 a month and paid $ 2,000 in rent, cash student loans, etc. Your DTI would be 50%, which is about as much as any refinancing lender would like.

Of course, a lower DTI is better and can increase the number of offers available to you. Therefore, the use of debt tracking and verification of monthly payments can reduce or completely knock out.

Can you pay off credit cards or consolidate them into a lower down payment? (Don’t close accounts that could hurt your credit score.) Or could you first refinance other debts with higher interest rates like car loans?

Watch the tariffs

When current refi interest rates move higher than you eat – and assume you want to refine eventually – consume faster than later.

Keep this in mind: a $ 30,000 loan at 6% usually amounts to $ 144 percent each month. That percentage lives now, but it survives. As soon as the suspension of payment is over, interest will begin again.

If you’ve funded 4% per month before the end of the term, you’ll still be out in less than five months, saving about $ 30 per monthly bill.

If you have private loans, check your rates now. Private loans have a federal benefit – like the current interest rate waiver – so you’ll get a bit of a refinancing shortfall if you can get a higher rate.




8 Marriott Hotels for Road Trips in the Western U.S.


note: NerdWallet severely hinders travel soon as long as the coronavirus continues to spread. Check Disease Control Center and State Department sites for current travel recommendations and restrictions. Please use the contents of this article only to inform about future travel plans.

A road trip can be a great summer vacation option for a good time with the family. The Western United States offers many places to choose from, whether you’re looking for budget travel options, opportunities to explore the great outdoors or a luxury home, close to home, with amenities.

If you have accumulated a stack Marriott Bonvoy pointsyou can easily turn them into free hotel rooms. If you are planning your summer road trip route, here are some of the best hotel booking options for the Western U.S. escape.

Best for family travel

Taking children on a summer trip means checking out places that offer activities and attractions to keep them busy. Here are the two best options for family entertainment.

  • SpringHill Suites, Jackson Hole, Jackson, Wyoming: Think of something to check SpringHill Suites in Jackson Hole if you are interested in a family trip to Grand Teton National Park. White water rafting and fly fishing are other family activities. This is a category 6 property, so booking at peak travel times requires 60,000 points per night.

  • Monterey Marriott, Monterey, CA: Monterey Bay is family-friendly, both indoors and outdoors, including the colorful driveway of Highway 1, which runs through the Great Sur. The Monterey Marriott offers proximity to attractions. Bad category 7 hotel, so you will need 70,000 points to book peak nights.

Best for budget travelers

Some Marriott brands can offer a serious blow to your points. Hotels that offer good value include Courtyard by Marriott, Four Points by Sheraton and Fairfield Inn & Suites.

  • Four points from Sheraton Ventura Harbor Resort, Ventura, CA: This Marriott Property may be a good fit if you wanted to spend part of a summer road trip to the resort. Ventura is famous for its attractive attractions for families, and Santa Barbara is just a 30-minute drive to the coast if you want to make a day trip. This is a category 4 hotel, the peak booking of which requires only 30,000 points.

  • Fairfield Inn & Suites, Spokane Valley, Washington: Spokane Valley has many indoor and outdoor attractions for families. The Fairfield Inn & Suites Spokane Valley a category 3 hotel, which means you only need 20,000 points to book peak nights.

It is best to return to nature

If you are interested in spending time outdoors with your family, national parks and other rural establishments may enjoy it.

  • TownePlace Suites Whitefish Kalispell, Whitefish, Montana: The Whitewing is just a 30-minute drive from Glacier National Park, perfect for family exploration. There is also Lake Sig, which offers fishing and swimming. TownePlace Suites offers comfortable rooms, and since it is a category 4 hotel, many items are not required for booking.

  • SpringHill Suites, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho: Kerr d’Alen is the largest city in northern Idaho, and it’s perfect for a summer vacation outdoors. There is a Mineral Ridge trail for hiking, rafting and a network of bike paths to check out. SpringHill Suites available for local attractions and, as a Category 5 hotel, requires 40,000 points to book peak nights.

Best for luxury travel

A luxury hotel maybe on your summer trip a must-see list if you want to feel like a chatterbox while you’re away from home. Marriott luxury hotel brands include W Hotels, Luxury Collection and Ritz-Carlton.

  • The Nines, a luxury collectible hotel, Portland, Oregon: If your road trip involves a stop in Portland, think about it Nine. Guest rooms feature high-end finishes and spectacular city views. The Nines is a Category 6 property.

  • W Seattle, Seattle, WA: Seattle is home to many tourist attractions, but you could just as easily spend an afternoon strolling through one of the city’s many parks. The Seattle offers a luxurious getaway after a long day of excursions as a family. It is also a category 6 hotel.

Maximum use of Marriott Bonvoy scores for summer road trips

If you use your Marriott earned points to book hotels, you want to get the most out of them. These tips will help you get the most out of your booking.

  • Book five nights in a row with points to enjoy the fifth night for free.

  • Try booking summer road trips before or after the peak season to take advantage of discounts.

  • Be strategic when buying a combination of “cash + points” and comparing cash rates.

  • Follow the mid-level properties (categories 4 and 5) for the stretching points as far as possible.

How to maximize your rewards

You want to travel with a credit card that prioritizes the ones that matter most to you. Here are our choices for the best road credit cards of 2020, including the best for:




Miss Air Travel? How to Get the In-Flight Experience at Home


Is travel enough as much as us? Some of our favorite memories and perks lie in the clouds.

And before someone calls you back on a flight that absolutely nothing can be missed (medium seats, long lines, safety issues, etc.), think that maybe you did it wrong. If you suffer from every flight because you thought the nice aspects of air travel come only with the most expensive tickets, the good news is: Some of the best discounts for flyers have nothing to do with having to spend a lot on airfare.

Look in your wallet for the many high benefits that your credit cards offer. Be free Clear or TSA before voting, access to vacations at airports or before boarding flights, flying can be fun, even if you spend a ton.

This guide gives you right on the doorstep some of the most enjoyable aspects of flying.

Lies before the flight

If you are presented with a holiday experience, you are out of luck. Hall at Centurion House These airport lounges have recipes for popular food items and cocktails. The recipes use ingredients that you already have at home to cook dishes similar to the popular guacamole chef dean Fearing.

Photo credit:

During the flight food

Credit in the photo: Cathay Pacific

The drink was developed in collaboration with the Hong Kong Bartenders Association, and now that the airline has shrunk, the airline wants to remind its passengers of one of the famous benefits. To go with it, insert the microwave ramiekin with nuts to enjoy this most important snack in flight in the same way as in American and Delta airlines.

Forget what you know (or think you know) about food by plane. For travelers sitting on the pointed end of an airplane, this is often much more appealing. United Airlines believes so and even published a cookbook of his favorite recipes from business class Polaris.

Credits: United Shop

It contains 40 recipes, including chefs Project Trotter. Grab a cocktail, dim the lights, and enjoy one of these dishes on a tray while watching a movie (or one of hundreds of videos from a “trip report” or “flight report” uploaded by travelers documenting a flight service on YouTube). As you like stay in Polaris without finding affordability and savings MileagePlus miles diverging to one of numerous airline credit cards.

Photo credit:

Delta may have introduced Biscoff cookies to the US. airline passenger, but many domestic airlines now serve them. These popular European cookies are available in many grocery stores and online. When you order before the end Delta Bishop’s own storeyou can earn 1 SkyMile for a dollar spent.

United brought Dutch slinger (15% discount when using coupon code FLYAWAY15) in the US Attention of airline passengers, but the American also got rid of these delicious treats. Unfortunately, JetBlue gets credit for his signature Terra Chips, which he serves on flights. Both snacks, which, with many frequent flyers, can transport you from home to another area with each snack.

As airlines see fewer and fewer passengers, their perishable snacks and meals will be wasted. Many airlines donate their food to banks where possible. You can buy them from similar suppliers Imperfect foodwhere the airline’s usual price is sold, like plates of cheese and discounted snacks.

High comfort and style

The music on boarding the airline can put you in a good mood for travel, even if you’re riding in a chair. American Airlines releases music on board – usually a collection of indie rock bands and new artists Spotify and Apple Music. The playlist changes monthly.

If you want to have a business-style airline dinner, good luck: many airlines sell the same services used in their aircraft. Delta sells some of its in-flight items, including old planes and service carts flight museum in Atlanta. Keep an eye out for their frequent sales if interested.

Photo credit:

Forget forgetting to watch one of the many popular airline security videos that have been uploaded to YouTube before digging into food in China. Air New Zealand has a web page If you want to read it aloud, a current video on security as well as a full transcript.

Photo credit:

The Lufthansa WorldShop sells all kinds of accessories under the brand of airlines, including a coffee table created from the wing of the aircraft. Austrian Jetshop has many aircraft models, vintage logos and coffee cups.

Air France has Online store selling souvenirs with logos, travel and clothing. Why not dress like a pilot while at home? These TAP Air Portugal notebooks and stationery can also help satisfy the urge to travel.

United sells bed linen at Polaris Business Class. Fifth Sachs Avenue pillows and blankets apparently so luxurious that the airlines had to issue passengers a polite reminder not to steal them from the plane. The airline provided a link to its online store so passengers could purchase them.

Credits: United Shop

And if you plan to cook dishes from the airline’s cookbook, you can also order yourself branded apron go with him.

Many sites also sell travel reminders. Airport known to everyone: from t-shirts to pillowcases with airport codes or gifts that match the boarding passes we would all like to have. Pilot Center aimed at pilots, but has memorable models and gifts that will appeal to everyone.

How to maximize your rewards

You want to travel with a credit card that prioritizes the ones that matter most to you. Here are our choices for the best road credit cards of 2020, including the best for:




In Pandemic, Complaints Against Financial Institutions Rise


Consumer complaints to the Bureau of Financial Protection for Consumers for the five months of 2020 increased by 31% over the same period last year, and many of these new complaints specifically mentioned the coronavirus crisis.

The CFPB transmits consumer complaints about loans, credit cards, bank accounts and other financial products to financial institutions. For people who are dissatisfied or otherwise frustrated with their direct interaction with a financial company, this treatment can provide treatment, usually within a few weeks. During the nationwide financial crisis, of course, there are such disappointments.

On March 4, the CFPB received the first complaint about the COVID-19 pandemic. The first complaint was related to the canceled trip and the inability to return the money, despite global warnings about the trip. Within approximately three months, through May 31, the intersection date used in this analysis, the agency received 1,309 complaints mentioning the pandemic.

Our analysis reviewed all complaints filed with the CFPB since January. From 1 to 31 May 2020 and located at its base until 1 June at 9am. EDT. These complaints do not necessarily reflect the consumer experience in general, but they do tell interesting stories of difficult situations in unexplored financial territory.

In the first five months of 2020, the CFPB received 142,782 complaints, which is 31% more than in the first five months of 2019.

Stories with complaints hint at the causes of financial burdens

When someone files a complaint against the CFPB, they go through a series of elections with many options and introduce a narrative that describes their power. This narrative can be voiced if the complainant agrees, giving us the opportunity to extract these narratives for certain words, moods, and general trends. If they agree, the basics of the complaints – such as the financial product, the issue and the related company – are still published, except for a detailed description. Of the appeals filed on May 31, 2020, only 33% were published with a description.

Looking for these stories for words including “covid,” “coronavirus,” and several related terms, we found 1,309 complaints that mention this particular pandemic. Although only a small proportion of published complaints included public narratives, given the increase in the total number of complaints, it is likely that many of the others were also related to the financial impact of the pandemic.

Among all the complaints about the story among those who mention job loss, unemployment, or a number of related synonyms, it has increased by 34% over the same period last year.

Mortgage, credit card and credit reporting complaints are the most common

The presence of “incorrect information in your credit report” was the most common complaint filed in the first five months of 2020 and 2019. But among the complaints in 2020, which explicitly mention “solid” or related deadlines, “fight against mortgage payments” – this is the main question – what is 16% of this set.


Among pandemic-related complaints, more than a quarter (26%) are listed as “mortgages” as the primary financial product. Reading the statements labeled as mortgage complaints, we found that many consumers are frustrated by the lack of relief provided by mortgage offers. Namely, consumers were dissatisfied with the fact that at the end of the loan lenders demand full repayment of the installment delay – known as a balloon.

Take action: Borrowers seeking mortgage withholding may be able to agree on different terms with their lender if balloon payment remains feasible. Some lenders may allow the repayment amount to be repaid within a few months or set it at the end of the loan term, although this is always the case. Loan modification another aid tool. This perfectly restructures the terms of the mortgage.

Credit cards

The second most frequently cited financial product related to coronavirus complaints are credit or prepaid cards, which account for 23%. Continuing complaints with credit card labels, we found that many people are frustrated by issuers who close inactive accounts without warning.

Take action: An unexpectedly canceled credit card can eliminate one source of emergency financing during difficult financial periods. Unfortunately, credit card issuers are not previously required to notify account holders closing an inactive account. Sometimes using a credit card for a gas tank or a trip to the grocery store can be enough to make an account open and accessible when you need it most.

Credit reports

“Credit reporting, credit repair services, or other personal consumer reports” is the third most common category of financial products complained of in coronavirus-related stories. Typically, these products are most often complained of during the year, and although they account for only 20% of those who explicitly refer to a pandemic, they account for 60% of the total number of complaints filed so far in 2020.

Reading the stories, we found many complaints directed at the accounts that are reported to the credit bureaus, either in insurance or in another payment modification program. Criminal accounts in your credit report can make it harder to access new or increased lines of credit. Under the terms of the coronavirus protection package adopted by Congress in March, participation in loan repayments or other lender difficulty programs should not adversely affect the credit of someone whose account is otherwise on a good account.

Take action: When working with financial institutions, it is important to clearly ask whether suspended or late payments will be reported to the credit bureau and to keep track of your credit reports for errors in the month. Due to the pandemic the CFPB extended the time of credit bureaus to resolve similar errors from 30 to 45 days.


Using the statistical programming language R and Google Sheets, analyze consumer complaints received by the Office of Financial Protection of Consumer Rights by the date of receipt of the complaint. The full complaint database was loaded at 9 p.m. EDT June 1, 2020. As complaints are not published in the database until the company responds (or 15 days after the initial receipt, whichever is earlier), complaints received before the termination date of May 31, 2020 will continue to be added. to the database in the coming months, so the results will vary.

Single records of complaints may repeat problems filed by the same consumer more than once. As the complaints were anonymized, we did not take this into account.

When searching for complaints specifically related to the coronavirus pandemic, we searched for the following terms: “coronavirus”, “covirus”, “pandemic” and “quarantine”. When searching for complaints related to job loss, we searched for the following terms: “unemployment”, “unemployed”, “job loss”, “fired” and “lost job”. All searches ignored letters.




How to sell on Etsy and make money


Are you a cunning or obscene hand in design? Turn your hobby into money by setting up a store on Etsy – here’s how to start selling.

make money on etsy

If not heard These, introduced an online marketplace designed specifically for “unique items”.

It can be almost anything: from greeting cards and candles, to bath bombs, clothes and jewelry – as long as your items are made by hand or by hand (meaning at least 20 years) or handicrafts.

Etsy has 1.7 million active sellers and 28.6 million active buyers, so it’s definitely an audience out there if you can do anything that people want to buy.

If you have purchased the right product and taken advantage of the tips below, you can start making money on Etsy in a matter of days.

How Much Money Can You Make On Etsy?

We will be honest here – how much money you can earn depends on how successful your store will be.

Some people make a steady side income of £ 20 – £ 30 a month, while others earn enough to quit their jobs and sell on Etsy full time.

Chances are you won’t become a millionaire (or even a thousand bucks) from selling on Etsy, but if you follow a few simple rules, you’ll easily be able to make a decent small side income while studying, all doing what you actually enjoy.

How to sell on Etsy

It’s important not to interfere with things when it comes to setting up an Etsy store. The best thing you can do is just get started.

If you spend too long focusing on getting everything perfect, you will never be able to run a store. And once you have something on the site, you can always improve.

You need at least these five things to start selling on Etsy:

  1. Sell ​​something

    This is a difficult part, but if you decide wisely, it can be the beginning of a whole new business. It even has to be a physical subject, a lot of people sell their images for people to print at home, or create images for people to enjoy on their websites and on social media.

    If you’re really struggling with ideas of what to sell on Etsy, why not take a look at the site to see what others are doing? Look at it as inspiration, but make sure you don’t copy someone else’s idea!

    If you are really involved, this is the best step to create or order a prototype or test of your product. This will allow you to see what it will look like, make it easy to take photos of products, and check build quality.

  2. The name and logo of your store

    Don’t think about the name of your Etsy store. It won’t have much of an impact on your sales and you’ll also get one chance to rename it. Come up with something simple and witty and try not to be too vague and clever. Also, make sure your Google name is to make sure it doesn’t conflict with anything else.

    Once you have decided on a name, you will be able to easily make your own logo using Canva – a bad online program that is very similar to Photoshop, but much, much easier and free!

    If you are really not comfortable doing it yourself, just use a site like Fiverr to get someone to do it for you.

We also recommend purchasing your own domain so that it matches the name of the Etsy store now, just in case you decide to expand it in the future – only takes a few minutes.
  1. Clear and attractive images of your things

    For Etsy it’s even more important than on eBay – your product (hopefully) has never been seen before, and a great photo here can really change the situation (even more than your store name and logo).

    If you ordered or created a product test as mentioned in paragraph 1, it should be very simple.

    See what other stores do with similar products, choose the style you like best, and then work on making your own.

  2. A little money

    Unlike many online sites that sell online, 100% free to sell on Etsy, as each email costs 15 times for publication. If you’re investing 1 pound, listing six items, we think that’s definitely enough to get you started.

    You may also want to consider investing in some listings to help you reach the top of your search results, as Etsy is a fairly competitive market, so seeing yourself at launch can be difficult.

    While we go for the money, you need to think about the value of your things. Take some time to develop the cost of making the product (including any upfront costs spread over several units) and then come up with a price.

    Make sure you pay enough to cover your expenses and make a profit, but don’t be greedy here. It’s the Internet, and if you overpay, there will be someone else who will cut you and take over your entire business.

  3. Postal plan

    Explore the most economical way to pack and lay out your creations. You can take advantage of the post office, but if your goods are too large or heavy, a courier company may be the best option.

    Make sure you know the cost and before you go ahead. It’s okay to charge £ 2.99 for shipping and pay £ 4.99 for yourself when it comes to it.

How much does it cost to sell on Etsy?

how much can you earn on eci

Credit: Choreography – These

Etsy fees are relatively complicated other sites that sell. There are three different types of payments that apply every time someone buys something from your store:

  1. List fee To put each item up for sale costs 15 pips, and each listing lasts four months, or until it is sold – whichever comes first. You can customize your items for automatic updating if you have a few available and keep paying another 15p once sold to keep it alive
  2. Transaction fee When selling Etsy charges you 5% of the sale price (including postage)
  3. Payment Processing Fee – This is 20p + 4% of the total fee (including postage) if you use the Etsy payment system. You can use Paypal to receive payments if you want, and their fee is 20p + 3.4%.

As an example, imagine you sell anything for £ 10 + £ 2.99. If you use the Etsy payment system, it will cost 15 pixels. That’s just 1.52 pounds.

Etsy Plus

etsy plus

Credit: GridUnLock – These

Recently, Etsy also introduced a Plus subscription, which costs more money but gives access to more benefits and opportunities.

For £ 7.70 a month you get access to additional features including:

  • More store settings
  • Recommended list options
  • 50% discount on .com user address or free .store address for a year
  • 15 credits on a listing and £ 3.80 for advertised lists each month
  • Special discounts on custom shipping, business cards and other marketing material.

Is Etsy Plus worth it?

Etsy sellers are very different about this. Some believe that the money you get back in the form of credit transfers and advertising lists each month makes a subscription plus a pretty good deal.

Others feel that discounts on things like marketing materials and personalized domain names still don’t get you an affordable price, so they aren’t worth paying.

Look at all the trends and think carefully before investing in a subscription, because if you can’t use all the features, it may not cost you extra money.

Pros and cons of selling on Etsy

Etsy means the biggest or most famous site that sells there, but if your product is picky and homey, it can become one of the most profitable. Here are some basic benefits.


The audience

The edge that Etsy has compared to other similar sites eBay either Gamtra is that buyers are more focused on the quality and uniqueness of each individual list, rather than on price or location.

While a typical eBay or Amazon customer can type in a search term and list everything from the lowest to the highest prices, an Etsy buyer expects that their search will get a full page of similar products.

It is much more aware when something like this is created, regardless of cost.


When you start selling on Etsy, you’ll have to create a store and you’ll be encouraged to add a logo, banner and description with links on social media to help the visitor learn a little more about you. The pages of eBay sellers are usually simple and anonymous, but there are so many ways to add a personal contact on Etsy.

Best Business Etsy uses all of these features to create your memorable brand that people will search for by name. If you want your own .com address to link directly to your store, you can set it up (for free) and directly via Etsy.

Etsy has options that make selling personalized items easier, and since creating custom orders can take you a little longer, you can charge more for them. Also provide an opportunity to create coupon codes to encourage customer loyalty or reward your fans on social media.

You can also close the store if you need a break, which can be a really helpful feature to reassure regular customers when they come back and see an empty store.

International opportunities

We mentioned the number of Etsy sellers in the UK, and they all told us that an amazing percentage of their orders came from overseas – especially from Australia and the US.

Because every item is made specifically, people are less worried about fast delivery. This means that there are even more potential customers for you.


Like all online sales platforms, Etsy is perfect – here are some drawbacks:

You are hired to pay instantly

You can receive your payments monthly, weekly, daily or daily, but after you pay, “according to the insiders of our seller Etsy, the money that got into your bank will take about three days. This is ideal if you may need pay the mail by then.

First of all the US site

Unfortunately, in the UK sellers are at a disadvantage compared to the base in America – whether due to increased delivery times, higher postage or prices – the buyer in the US, rather than £ 5, will be $ 6.51 .

You get a monthly fee

It is very difficult to keep track of all listing fees, commissions and payment fees when your store is up and running and they pay a large chunk once a month.

Remember to set aside money to pay them, and treat everything you earn from Etsy as a profit.

You don’t have complete control

Shop on Etsy – that’s not what create your own website. You don’t have complete control over every aspect of the design, and creating your personal brand isn’t easy.

Plus, Etsy can technically kick you out of the site at any time (although they won’t if they don’t break the rules).

Also keep in mind that if you don’t want to turn an Etsy store into a full-fledged business, an Etsy store is often not considered “professional” as your own website. The Etsy store is a great way to start your business, but if all goes well, you can move to an independent platform.

Looking for additional ways to increase your bank balance? Check out our final list ways to make money.

Which products are best sold on Etsy?

what to sell on etsy

Credit: famous latest cards – These

We used the CraftCount website to look at Etsy’s best-selling stores, and the variety is huge!

Here are some of the bestsellers:

  • Stickers
  • Personalized bottles, glasses and t-shirts
  • Notebooks
  • Jewelry
  • Artistic engravings
  • Knitted patterns
  • Greeting cards
  • Images
  • Enamel pins

But people sell all sorts of amazing handicrafts on Etsy: the more original, the better. We’ve seen successful stores that sell everything from nail polish to food, so we’re limited to the popular ones.

Tips for Beginner Etsy Sellers

We asked some experienced Etsy sellers what they would like to know when they opened their stores, and here’s what they told us:

Keep an eye on margins – I initially designed my prices to get about 10% profit, but once my cards started to gain popularity, I actually got an understated price compared to my competitors and I missed out on earnings much more.

Well, and I’m afraid to buy Etsy ads, I spend about $ 2 a day and it works for me – just keep an eye on it.

Leah from The latest maps are known

Etsy’s search is predictable, so you can put a word that matches your product and it will come up with key terms to use.

You need to use certain keyword terms contained in two or more words and have them in your title as well as use all your tags.

You don’t need fancy equipment to get good photos. I take all mine over the phone. Use natural light and a nice background and you’re on your way. Wallpaper patterns (artificial wood otherwise) create good backgrounds for flat feet.
Louise from Book UK

Alternatives to Etsy

alternatives to Etsy
Etsy is the only place to sell vintage and handmade items online – here are the best of the rest.

Do you need a quick sale? You’ve almost certainly heard eBayand a lot of people use it to sell the same item you plan to sell on Etsy. If you can keep costs competitive enough and want to sell goods quickly, eBay can become the site for you.

Looking for international supplies? Folk – is a handmade site (no antiques) designed only for sellers in the UK.

Want to stop paying commission? Buy allows you to create an online store without paying for emails and commissions, but it’s $ 29 a month. Depending on your volume this may be a cheaper option.

Selling clothes or accessories? If your Etsy business idea is related to fashion, there are many websites selling clothes onlinelike Depop and Vinted.

Ready to invest in your business? Not on High Street is a British site with Etsy-like products and a reliable market with TV commercials. However, you need to apply to sell your goods on NOTHS, and on online forums it is easy to do. Plus it costs £ 199 a year once they offer you the green light.

However, apparently people sell a lot more through Not on the High Street, which makes the fees good for that.

It is a good idea to use yours social media profiles promote your Etsy store. There are many ways to increase the number of following and use these channels to make money.

You know how to sell on Etsy, so maybe consider branching out to other products 53 business ideas!!



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Bonds vs. Stocks: A Beginner’s Guide


You’ve no doubt heard of stocks and bonds. But if you’ve never delved into these popular investments, you might not know how different they really are – and why these differences are so important. Here’s a beginner’s analysis of what stocks and bonds are, what risks they pose and how to include them in a thoughtfully constructed investment portfolio.

What are stocks and bonds?


Shares constitute partial ownership or a share in a company. By buying stocks, you are actually buying a smaller piece of the company – one or more “stocks”. And the more shares you buy, the more you own the company. Said said the company has a share price of $ 50 per share, and you invest $ 2,500 (that’s 50 shares at $ 50 each).

Now imagine for a few years the company has been running steadily. Because the partial owner is concerned, a significant success is your success, and the value of your shares will grow just as much as the value of the company. If its stock price rises to $ 75 (50% more), the value of your investment will rise by 50% to $ 3750. You can then sell those shares to another investor with a return of $ 1250.

Of course, the opposite is true. If a company is doing poorly, the value of your shares may drop lower than you bought them. In this case, if you sold them, you lost money.

Shares are also known as corporate stocks, common stock, corporate stocks, stocks and shares. Companies can issue shares to the public for several reasons, but the most common is fundraising, which can be used to boost future growth.


Bonds are a loan you get from a company or government. No capital or shares were found for purchase. Simply put, a company or government borrows from you when you buy a bond and it will pay you interest on the loan for a set period, after which it will repay the entire amount for which you purchased the bond. But bonds are absolutely risk-free. If the company goes bankrupt during the bond period, it stops receiving interest payments and may not repay your full principal.

Let’s say you buy a bond for $ 2,500 and it pays 2% annual interest for 10 years. This means that each year you receive $ 50 in interest payments, which are usually evenly distributed throughout the year. For 10 years, you would have earned $ 500 percent, and you ended up getting your initial investment of $ 2,500. Holding bonds for the entire term is known as “holding to maturity”.

With bonds you usually know exactly what you are subscribing to, and regular interest payments can be used as a predictable source fixed income over a long period.

The duration of the bonds depends on the type you buy, but usually ranges from a few days to 30 years. Eventually, the interest rate – known as the yield – will vary depending on the type and duration of the bond.

Differences between stocks and bonds

While both tools seek to grow their money, the way they are made and the income they offer are very different.

Justice vs. Debt

When you hear about stock and debt markets, they usually refer to stocks and bonds respectively.

Equity is the most popular liquid financial asset (an investment that can be easily converted into cash) in the United States. In 2018, the country issued $ 221.2 billion in equity. Corporations often issue shares to raise cash to expand operations, and in return investors are given the opportunity to benefit from the company’s future growth and success.

Buying bonds means issuing a debt that needs to be repaid with interest. You have a share of ownership in the company, but you enter into an agreement that the company or government must pay a fixed interest rate over time as well as a principal amount at the end of that period.

Capital gains vs. fixed income

Stocks and bonds also make cash in different ways.

To make money on stocks, you need to sell the stocks sold at a higher price than you paid for them to make a profit or capital gain. Capital gains can be used as income or reinvested, but they will be taxed long-term or short-term capital gains respectively.

Bonds create cash through regular interest payments. The frequency of distribution may vary, but is usually usually as follows:

  • Treasury bonds and banknotes: Once every six months until maturity.

  • Treasury accounts: Only after repayment.

  • Corporate bonds: Semi-annually, quarterly, monthly or maturing.

Bonds can also be sold in the market for capital gains, although for many conservative investors predictable fixed income is most attractive for these instruments. Worse, some types of stocks offer a fixed income that is more reminiscent of debt than equity, but this is usually a source of stock value.

Reverse performance

One of the most important differences between stocks and bonds is that they tend to be inversely related in terms of value – when stock prices rise, bond prices fall and vice versa.

Historically, when stock prices rise and more people buy to take advantage of this rise, bond prices usually fall as demand falls. Conversely, when stock prices fall and investors want to turn to traditionally lower-risk investments, such as low-yield bonds, their demand increases and, in turn, their prices.

The table below compares the overall profitability of the S&P 500 (inventories) and the annual profitability of Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate index (bonds) since 2000. And while there are survivors, especially in recent times, the feedback relationship seems to be fair: bonds tend to have better years when stocks are at their worst, and vice versa.

Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Ing indicator (%)

Bond output is also closely linked to interest rates. For example, if you buy a bond with a yield of 2%, it may be more valuable if interest rates fall because newly issued bonds will have a lower yield than yours. On the other hand, higher interest rates may mean that newly issued bonds have higher yields than yours, less demand for your bond and, in turn, its value.

To stimulate spending, the Federal Reserve typically lowers interest rates during economic downturns – periods that are usually worse for many stocks. But lower interest rates will raise the price of existing bonds higher, strengthening the reverse price dynamics.

The risks and benefits of each

Stock risks

The biggest risk of shares in investing is a decrease in the value of shares after their acquisition. There are several reasons why stock prices fluctuate (you can learn more about them in our stock management instructions), but in the short term, if productivity remains expected by investors, the value of its shares may fall. Given the reasons why business can decline, stocks are usually riskier than bonds.

However, higher risk can bring higher returns. From June 11, 2020, the S&P 500 has a 10-year term average annual yield 10.65%, while in the US. the bond market, measured by Bloomberg Barclays U.S. The aggregate bond index has a 10-year total yield of 3.92%.

Bond risks

U.S. Treasury bonds tend to be more resilient than stocks in the short term, but this lower risk usually means lower yields, as noted above. Treasury securities such as government bonds and bills, completely risk-free, as these tools are backed by the US. government.

Corporate bonds, on the other hand, have a broad level of risk and return. If a company is more likely to go bankrupt and therefore cannot continue to pay interest, its bonds will be considered much riskier than those in a company with a very low probability of going bankrupt. The low ability to repay debt is reflected in its credit rating, which is paid by credit rating agencies such as Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s.

Corporate bonds can be grouped into two categories: investment-grade bonds and high-yield bonds.

  • Investment class. Higher credit rating, less risk, less return.

  • High profitability (also called unwanted bond). Low credit rating, higher risk, high yield.

These different levels of risk and return help investors choose which part to invest money in – otherwise known as creating an investment portfolio. According to Brett Koppel, a certified financial planner in Buffalo, New York, stocks and bonds play different roles that can yield the best results when used as a complement to each other.

“Generally, I believe that investors looking for higher returns should do so by investing more stocks, as opposed to buying riskier investments with a fixed return,” Kappel says. “The main role of fixed income in a portfolio is to diversify stocks and preserve capital, not to achieve the highest possible return.”

Stock / bond portfolio allocation

There are many adaptations to help you determine how to distribute stocks and bonds in your portfolio. One says that the percentage of stocks in your portfolio should be equal to 100 minus your age. So if it’s 30, your portfolio should contain 70% stock, 30% bond (or other) safe investments). If 60, it should be 40% stock, 60% bond.

The basic idea here makes sense: as you approach retirement age you can protect your nest egg from wild market fluctuations by allocating more of your funds to bonds and less to stocks.

However, detractors of this theory may argue that it is too conservative given our longer life expectancy and prevalence. low cost funds, which offers a cheaper, easier form of diversification and is usually less risky than individual stocks. Some argue that in our world is better suited to 110, or even 120 minus – the best approach.

For most investors, the distribution of stocks / bonds comes down to risk tolerance. How much instability do you like in the short term in exchange for stronger long-term benefits? One Vanguard study collected data from 1926 to 2018 to find out how different distributions were made during this period. Using this data, think about how it fits your own timing and risk tolerance to determine what might be good for you.

Years with a loss (out of 93)

Remember that on average for a year, rarely a particular year really corresponds to its average level. For example, S&P 500 ended 2008 by 37%, but by the end of 2009 had recovered 26.46%, partially offsetting 2008 losses. Conversely, Bloomberg Barclays U.S. The aggregate bond index ended 2008 by 5.24%, and in 2009 it was higher by 5.93%.

Keep this in mind when looking at the column on the right: a portfolio consisting of 100% equity is almost twice as likely to end the year with a loss than a portfolio of 100% bonds. Are you willing to spend these downturns in exchange for a higher probability of a return in the long run, given your timing?

Upside down: When debt and equity roles are reversible

There are certain types of stocks that offer the benefits of fixed income bonds, and there are bonds that fit the nature of stocks with higher risk and higher yields.

Dividends and preferred stock

Dividend stocks often produced by large, stable companies that regularly generate high profits. Instead of investing these profits in growth, they often distribute them among shareholders – this is the distribution of dividends. Because these companies typically focus on aggressive growth, their stock prices may not rise as high or fast as smaller companies, but consistent dividend payments can be valuable for investors looking to diversify their fixed income assets.

Preferred stocks It is even more reminiscent of bonds and is considered a fixed-income investment, which is usually riskier than bonds but less risky than ordinary stocks. Preferred shares pay dividends, which often exceed both dividends on ordinary stock and interest payments on bonds.

Sale of bonds

Also bonds can be sold in the market with capital gains if their value increases higher than you paid for them. This may be due to changes in interest rates, higher ratings by credit agencies or a combination thereof.

However, achieving high returns on risky bonds often overcomes the goal of investing in bonds, primarily – to diversify from stocks, save capital and provide a cushion for a rapid market crash.




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